迎接台灣Podcast元年,跟著入行三步驟學英文

(來源/Pxfuel)

最近幾年聽播客(Podcast)的人數急速上升,podcast來自於iPod加上broadcast的單字組合。大家一定對這兩個單字不陌生,iPod曾經紅極一時,作為媲美Walkman的行動音樂播放器,在台灣造成一陣旋風,而broadcast則是英文字典裡本來就有的單字,有廣播的意思。

過去的娛樂方式不像現在這麼多元,其中一個就是聽廣播節目,陪伴許多人度過漫漫長夜。如今播客結合了行動便利性和廣播的功能,但不像廣播的設備等限制較高,投入門檻並不高,造成許多素人播客人(Podcaster)紛紛投入播客的行列,今天就用英文來看看如何成為播客人的行列吧!

Step 1: Develop a podcast concept (第一步:發展一個播客觀點)

Podcasts are as varied as the people that create them. There are excellent podcasts about history, pop-culture, neuroscience, and even a fictional town where aliens are friends with the Yeti.
(播客的內容五花八門,有些非常優秀的播客主題是有關於歷史、流行文化、腦神經,甚至還有一個外星人和雪人是好友的虛構小鎮。)

● varied (adj.) 繁多的

varied來自於動詞vary,就是指選項繁多可做選擇。這裡用比較級as… as的用法很好用,a variety of則是表示種類繁多的片語,可翻成「各式各樣」,後面接可數名詞,而various則是另一個同義的形容詞。大家可以視情況決定可以用哪個用法表達,也可以交叉使用表示語言的多樣性。

● fictional (adj.) 虛構的

-nal字尾表示形容詞,來自於形容詞fiction,有「小說」的意思,因為小說大多是虛構的故事。fictitious和fictional也是一樣有虛構的意思,不過兩者用法有些不同,前者就是一般生活上形容假的、虛假的意思,而後者大多是描述文學藝術上的虛構的(故事、電影、電視節目)。

The only limit to what you can do with a podcast is your own imagination. Before we tackle questions about choosing a podcast name, format, and show length, let’s consider some fundamental questions.
(唯一的限制你的播客發揮是你的想像力。在我們處理關於選擇播客名稱、模式、長度的問題之前,我們先來考慮一些基本的問題吧!)

● tackle (v.) 處理

這個單字就是deal with的意思,一般來說用越少的字、越精簡的用法的力道越大,採用片語的表達在生活語言中常見,但比起單詞來的力量沒那麼大,因此用tackle也比較正式。另外在運動用語裡,大多在美式足球和曲棍球等運動活動裡,tackle常用來表示擒拿攔截。

● fundamental (adj.) 基本的、主要的

foundation則是名詞─基礎,來自於圓形動詞found,表達建立的意思。Found的三態規則變化是found-founded-founded,不是另一個動詞find「找」的過去式喔,find是個不規則變化,find-found-found!這也曾經在多益考題出現過,因此大家絕對要搞清楚。

Step 2: Choose your podcast format (第二步:選擇你的播客模式)

The important thing is to choose a format that fits what your podcast is about and is something you’re comfortable with:
•If you love improv and banter, you’ll need to have a cohost.
•If you like having everything planned out and scripted, you might lean toward an audio drama.
(重點是選擇一個符合你播客主題的模式,也是你感到舒適的模式。
•如果你喜歡即興創作或戲謔玩笑,你需要搭配一個主持人。
•如果你喜歡事先規劃和擬稿所有流程,你會比較適合廣播劇的模式。)

● improv and banter 即興創作和戲謔玩笑

improv即興創作是一種特殊的表演模式,來自於動詞improvize,表達隨機應變的意思,也可以寫成improvise。improvization是它名詞變化,improvizational則是形容詞變化。banter有戲謔玩笑的意思。improv and banter模式就像是兩個主持人開開玩笑、聊聊天的模式。

● having everything planned out and scripted

這是一個使役動詞的用法,have和get都是多益常見的用法,後面接的動詞若是主動,就用原型(have)或to加原型(get)。這裡是被動態的用法,兩個動詞的被動態都用過去分詞,因此planned和scripted都加-ed。plan sth out代表縝密計畫,而script有擬稿的意思,script當名詞則表示台詞。這裡就是把節目內容都計畫完整並擬好稿的意思。

Step 3: Podcast recording equipment and software (第三步:播客錄音設備和軟體)

Podcasts have a low barrier to entry; if you want to start a podcast, it’s relatively easy to begin the process with little overhead or experience. You can start recording a podcast with just your iPhone and a pair of headphones. Remember, your content is the most crucial part.
(播客的投入門檻很低,如果你想要開始一個播客,只需要花費少少的費用和少許經驗,過程相對簡單。你可以使用你的蘋果手機和耳機就開始錄音。記住,你的內容才是最關鍵的部分。)

● barrier (n.) 障礙、阻礙

a low barrier to entry進入門檻低,entry就是enter的名詞變化,直接將整句記住就可以表達這個意思。

● relatively (adv.) 相對地

這個副詞有比較級的意思,後面加上形容詞,如relatively low、relatively easy等用法很常見,注意後面的形容詞不可以用比較級,直接用原型即可。

● overhead (n.) 企業日常開支或營運費用

多益考裡面這個用法則多用在飛機上,overhead compartment指的是頭頂上放行李的地方。

● crucial (adj.) 關鍵的

同義詞像是essential、imperative、critical等,都可作為important的替代詞。

【多益模擬試題】

Dear Mrs. Leonard,
In response to your request for information on this year’s Scientific Society’s Convention, I am pleased to confirm that the event will run over the weekend of the 30th and 31st of July. The venue is unchanged from last year, The Chesney Conference Center; however, we will be hosting some additional seminars in the adjoining facility, The Chesney Parks Hall.
This year, there will be an additional administration fee of $5 per person on top of the $5 entrance fee, which gives you complete access to all the venues, facilities and events. Donations are also encouraged – the Science Society is a voluntary, non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of science and to promoting discussion within and beyond the scientific community.
Parking spaces will be at a premium, therefore I strongly advise you to book in advance should you wish to travel by car. There is a fee of $5 per parking space. It is not recommended that you travel by car unless you have booked a space in advance, as you may be turned away at the gates of the complex. Alternatively, you may wish to take the complimentary shuttle bus which departs from the Hayton Hotel in the city center on the hour, every hour between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. on both days.
We look forward to greeting you in person at the event.
Yours sincerely,
James Shaw

1. What is James Shaw’s main reason for writing this letter?
(A) To notify Mrs. Leonard of the upcoming convention.
(B) To provide Mrs. Leonard with the information she requested.
(C) To encourage Mrs. Leonard to attend the convention.
(D) To provide Mrs. Leonard with details on how to get to the convention.

2. How much does it cost to attend the convention if you want parking?
(A) Nothing, though donations are welcome.
(B) $5 per person.
(C) $10 in total.
(D) $15 in total.

3. What travel advice is given?
(A) Those attending the conference are strongly advised not to travel by car.
(B) Anyone wishing to travel by car should book a parking space in advance.
(C) Anyone who arrives in a car will be turned away at the gates.
(D) The complimentary bus shuttle should be booked in advance.

解析:

1. 正解為(B)。問的是「請問James Shaw寫這封信的主要目的是什麼?」因為文中James提到「In response to your request for information on this year’s Scientific Society’s Convention, I am pleased to confirm that the event will run over the weekend of the 30th and 31st of July.(為了回應你請求今年科學協會會議的相關資訊,我很開心可以和你確認這次會議將會在七月30、31日舉行。)」因此可以推測James寫信目的就是提供對方所需求的資訊。這題若對於信件基本結構有概念的話可以很快掌握,通常信件開頭就會立即說出寫信目的,因此看到這樣的題目,直覺就是從開頭兩三句尋找即可。

2. 正解為(D)。第二題問說「若需要停車的話,參加會議共需花多少錢?」一開始提到「there will be an additional administration fee of $5 per person on top of the $5 entrance fee(除了入場卷5元外,還需支付額外的5元)」,這樣就是共10元。而在後面第三段作者又提到「There is a fee of $5 per parking space.(若要停車需要支付5元停車場費)」,如此一來,前後加起來共15元。這題需要連貫前後不同段路的資訊來判斷。

3. 正解為(B)。第三題問說「作者給予怎樣的旅遊建議呢?」旅遊建議就必須要看第三段「I strongly advise you to book in advance should you wish to travel by car.(萬一你希望開車來,我強烈建議你預先訂車位。)」因此答案選(B)。

文/Buffy Kao

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