抓住學術聽力6大提示 內容細節不遺漏

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學生問我:「在一次講述環境汙染的聽力練習中,我記下了內容的主旨和大綱,甚至有幾種原因造成汙染和解決方式也都記住了。我以為答題應該沒問題,然而實際考托福時,題目卻問了其他細節,讓我手足無措,我甚至不知道聽力內容有講到。」

photo: https://www.cvsurgery.co.uk/product/career-break-cv/

學生常常抓不到學術聽力內容的真正重點細節,這就是本期要介紹的――「組織內涵提示語」(Organization cues)(註),它提示讀者接下來即將進入該主題的細節,如例證、新想法、對比或條列式的重點,右表是組織內提示語常用範例,掌握愈多這類提示語,就能聽懂愈多具體細節內容。

註:組織內涵提示語有不同的英文用法,Organization cues、Lecture cues、Lecture language都可以。

組織內含提示語

1. 提供例證 Giving examples
• Let me give you an example….
• Here is a good example of….

筆記示範:
Here is a good example of a Mexican commuter who chooses whether to ride a bus or drive to work each morning. If she drives, her commute will generate 8kg of CO2, vs. only 1.5kg when riding a diesel bus.

2. 提供對比 Contrasting
• However….
• In contrast to….
• on the other hand

筆記示範:
In contrast to ongoing trade imbalances with China and Korea, the United States trade deficit with Mexico decreased by $300 million last year.

3. 新增想法 Addition
• In addition….
• Another point….
• Not only… but also

筆記示範:
Global warming is real and is caused by human activity,…. Additionally, global warming is having a measurable effect on the planet, in different ways

4. 條列重點 Listing
• Another….
• The first…. The final….
• the following

筆記示範:
These three biggest elements affect your credit score. The first element is your payment History. Then, the second one…. The final one is Length of Credit History.

5. 因果關係 Cause and Effect
• Therefore
• as a result (of )
• so

筆記示範:
Women are making their own money. So, as a result, many of them want to have power in how the family money is spent.

6. 強調細節 Emphasis
• more importantly
• above all

筆記示範:
Global warming will impact the weather as well as rising sea levels,…. More importantly, global warming is already putting pressure on ecosystems.

林麗菊
現職:國立中正大學語言中心主任
學歷:美國加州大學聖塔芭芭拉分校教育博士
專長:社會語言學、教育研究法、學術英文教學、字彙與閱讀教學

文/林麗菊

《 English OK 中學英閱誌 》第 03 期
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期刊訂閱 » 優惠方案
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