結合背景與思考力 看懂言外之意

從過往托福閱讀題型的探討,可發現其實理解文本是非常複雜的過程,若以閱讀理解策略難度分類,主旨題、重要細節與證據題可歸為「綠燈直行」的簡單題型,而這次我們要討論的「推論理解題」偏難,則屬「黃燈留意題」。

圖片提供:English OK

十個關鍵字詞 解碼推論題

通常多數推論題會包含幾種常見字: 暗示或意味(imply)、提議或暗示(suggest)、推論(infer)、預設(assume)、最有可能(most likely)、可能(probably)、似乎(seem)、預測或預估(predict)、顯示或提示(indicate)、結論(conclude)。

推論需豐富的單字技巧、文化框架、知識背景及批判思考力。開始練習後方的閱讀例題前,可先熟悉以下四步驟的作答策略及七大類推論題,再進一步檢測實力。

推論題作答策略四步驟

Step 1 找出推論問題中的關鍵字詞。
Step 2 抓出題幹中的實質字詞,以進一步搜尋相關資訊的位置。
Step 3 留意表達轉移、條件或限制的字詞,如such as、but、yet、although、since、except、moreover、unless、nonetheless、however等,因後方常緊隨著支持推論的關鍵字詞。
Step 4 先刪除不可能的答案,提高正確率。

推論題的七大類型與範例:

例題1:
The legs of an elite marathon runner, on the other hand, might contain up to 90 percent slow-twitch muscle fibers. These generate energy efficiently and enable an athlete to control fatigue and keep moving for a longer period of time. Athletes with many slow-twitch muscle fibers seem to be able to clear the lactate from their muscles faster as they move. A trained Olympic athlete, however, might not feel pain until much later in the competition.
(題目來源/摘錄自Reading Explorer 3, by Cengage Learning)

Q: Having a lot of slow-twitch muscle ¬fibers is¬ particularly important for _____.
(A) cyclists
(B) divers
(C) weightlifters
(D) table tennis players
答案:A

詳解:
這題屬於「細節推論」,題幹的關鍵須涵蓋背景知識,詢問哪一類運動選手需要slow-twitch muscle ¬bers(慢縮肌),第一句以馬拉松跑者(marathon runner) 為暗示, 若看懂這個詞彙,就容易從四個選項中辨識差異:由於選項(B)、(C)、(D)都屬於需快速反應力的fast-twitch muscle ¬bers(快縮肌)選手,因此選擇需持久力的cyclists 是正確答案。

例題2:
Although there do seem to be certain physical traits that are considered universally appealing, it is also true that beauty does not always conform to a single, uniform standard. A person’s cultural background, for example, may influence what he or she finds attractive in others. In the end, beauty really is, as the saying goes, in the eye of the beholder.
(題目來源/摘錄自Reading Explorer 3, by Cengage Learning)

Q: What do you think the saying “in the eye of the beholder” means?
(A) Beauty is subjective and is different for different people.
(B) Beauty is something that first appeals to sight.
(C) Beauty is something that is held in high esteem.
(D) Beauty of a person depends on their eyes.
答案:A

詳解:
這題屬「比喻推論」,可由上下文推論出名言或比喻在段落中的意義。文中提及beauty does not always conform to a single, uniform standard( 美麗不受限於單一標準) 或A person’s cultural background, for example, may influence what he or she finds attractive in others. (文化背景會影響一個人對於吸引力一詞的感受)。可推論答案為(A)美麗是主觀的,且對每個人都不一樣。

熟稔「黃燈題」後,下期我們將面對「紅燈題」——應用思考或批判思考(Application)題,請準備好閃亮亮的大腦。

About林麗菊
現職:國立中正大學語言中心副教授
學歷:美國加州大學聖塔芭芭拉分校教育博士
專長:社會語言學、教育研究法、學術英文教學、字彙與閱讀教學

… 全文未完
文/林麗菊

完整精采內文請見期刊
《 English OK 中學英閱誌 》第 09 期
各大通路、誠品書店、博客來同步販售中!
期刊訂閱優惠方案