破解態度詞 讀懂作者立場和口氣

這期將聚焦在應用或批判思考題,此題型答案常出現在結論段落,需以思考或批判力解讀作者態度或口氣。最難的是高層次思考或批判性思考,需先閱讀全篇,再統整作者態度。作者常以不同的「語言形式」呈現:如形容詞、副詞、轉換詞。表達態度的形容詞有:worthy、idealized、underestimated、appalling、overrated、overestimated、promising。或者,也可以使用副詞,如:importantly、notably、unfortunately、 unfavorably。

第三類是轉換詞,如:however、nevertheless、but。語言形式可讓作者傳達不同的態度,想讀出「隱藏訊息」,除高層次思考力,還需整合托福閱讀的前五項技巧。透過以下步驟,可更精準讀出作者態度。

Photo:Pixabay

四步驟 精確解讀作者態度

Step 1.找出態度詞:形容詞、副詞、轉換詞。例:But it is extremely difficult to define exactly what makes one person attractive to another.

詳解:句中有兩類態度詞:轉換詞But及形容詞difficult。作者對attraction的態度是difficult to define。此處But代表前文可能正在解釋what is beauty。結論extremely difficult to define exactly,明確表達「美仍是無法定論的」。

例:Under current policies, domestic processing of e-waste is not compulsory.

詳解:此句態度詞為not compulsory,指非強迫性。作者態度為:電子產品垃圾因非強迫處理,可能成效有限,或許只有強迫性作法才能解決。例:Shipping e-waste abroad is more profitable than processing it safely.

詳解:此句態度詞為more profitable,作者的態度是:運送出國遠比安全處理的利益大得多,所以運送出國才是正確作法。

Step 2.辨別態度詞分類:正面、負面或中立。最難在辨別態度詞的屬性或性質,即使中高階以上英文程度的學習者,仍需大量單字及語感才能辨別。

例:If only there were some decent jobs out there, I wouldn’t be reduced to living in this miserable old apartment.詳解:句中「被迫居住在這樣一個miserable 的公寓」,表示作者的負面態度。例:This old apartment does need some repairs, but I’m sure the landlord will be making improvements sometime soon.

詳解:作者態度相當正面,期待亟需整修的老舊公寓可得到改善(making improvements soon)。

例:This is the old apartment we live in. It provides shelter.

詳解:態度相當客觀,作者並未以任何形容詞表達個人感受,僅以shelter表達「可提供遮風避雨」的事實。
Step 3.了解態度題中的題幹用語。

此類型題幹常分成兩類:態度與口氣、邏輯與運用。常用於態度與口氣題中的字有:attitude、tone 及feeling。而mostly agree、agreement、most strengthened、most weakened 則可能出現在邏輯與運用題中。此類題幹可大致歸納如下:

1. 態度與口氣
● The tone of the passage can best be described as___.
● The author’s attitude toward…might best be described as____.

2. 邏輯與運用
● With which of the following statements would the author be most in agreement?
● Which statement would … probably agree with?
● Which statement would the author probably agree with the most?
● The author’s contention would be most clearly strengthened if which of the followings were found to be true?

Step 4. 閱讀並找出與態度詞相關的論點。

先閱讀一小段有關動物智商(Inside Animal Minds)的段落:
…Yet, many researchers say that creativity and language in animals, like other forms of intelligence, have evolved. “People were surprised to discover that chimpanzees make tools,” says Alex Kacelnik, an animal researcher at Oxford University. …
(資料來源/ Douglas, N & Bohlke, D(. 2015). Reading Explorer 3 .)

Q: Which statement would Alex Kacelnik probably agree with?

(A) Only humans and primates are capable of thought.
(B) Birds share a common ancestry with humans.
(C) Some birds are more intelligent than humans.
(D) We can find intelligence in species we don’t normally consider intelligent.
答案:D

詳解:
段落中的態度詞為surprised。作者引用動物研究專家Alex Kacelnik的說法佐證自己的態度「surprised」,意指原本沒期待或正常情況下不會如此,但出現了不在預期內的結果。因此答案為“…we don’t normally…”的選項。

目前我們已討論過托福閱讀中的六大題型,接著我們將探討最難搞定的改寫題(Paraphrase),不僅需要閱讀技巧,更要有紮實的單字與語法,下期一起來挑戰吧!

About林麗菊
現職:國立中正大學語言中心副教授
學歷:美國加州大學聖塔芭芭拉分校教育博士
專長:社會語言學、教育研究法、學術英文教學、字彙與閱讀教學

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